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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-57

Online since Saturday, July 18, 2020

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Systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the prevalence, burden, and trend of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia p. 1
Lukman Femi Owolabi, Bappa Adamu, Adamu Isa Imam, Shakirah Desola Owolabi, Ibrahim Daiyabu Alhaji, Mushabab Ayed Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah A Alshahrani
The aim of this study was to determine, using meta-analysis, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and to explore the influence of method of diagnosis, DM types, and study year on the prevalence of DM with the view to evaluating the trend and the burden of DM in KSA. Prevalence estimates were derived using a random effect model on carefully selected population-based studies in KSA. The derived estimates were applied to the total populations in the country to give an estimated burden of DM. Twenty-one studies, with 376,998 participants out of whom 54,837 had DM, were selected. The prevalence of DM was 20.9%, 0.9%, and 12.6% for T2DM, T1DM, and combined T1/T2DM, respectively. Subgroup analysis using the method of DM diagnosis showed that the prevalence of DM was 14.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3% to 19.0%) in the fasting plasma glucose group, 6.8% (95% CI: 2.6% to 11%) in oral glucose tolerance group, and 12.5% (6.2%–18.9%) in glycated hemoglobin group. Meta-regression revealed 4.6 × 10−3 increase in prevalence per year. The prevalence of DM in Saudi Arabia is high. There is a rising trend in the prevalence of DM in KSA and it is accompanied by a proportionate increase in the burden of DM.
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Primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal lymphoma p. 9
Zahra Abdulkareem Ghareeb, Shatha Alfaraj, Zainab Alnaji
Involvement of adrenal glands in lymphoma is rare; the patient may have variable presentations. We report a case of a 62-year-old Saudi female who presented to our center with a few-week history of fatigue, weight loss, subjective fever, and a recent change in skin color. On examination, she looked dehydrated and had a drop in blood pressure with postural change and hyperpigmentation of the skin of the face and hands. Morning cortisol levels were low, and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were high, which indicated primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). An adrenal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral adrenal enlargement. After excluding pheochromocytoma, a CT scan-guided trucut biopsy of the adrenals confirmed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was started on steroid replacement therapy, and after stabilization, a plan was made to initiate chemotherapy for the treatment of lymphoma; unfortunately, the patient died shortly after diagnosis because of rapid progression of the disease. Adrenal lymphoma can present with PAI and should be considered in the presence of bilateral adrenal enlargement; it is an aggressive tumor and carries poor prognosis if the treatment is delayed.
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Insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata Disease): Case report in a saudi female patient with graves' disease and literature review p. 12
Mohammed Zayed Almutairi, Hazem Abdulmohsen Aljumah
Uncommon scenario of spontaneous hypoglycemia after starting carbimazole due to insulin autoimmune syndrome, characterized by high levels of insulinemia and circulating autoantibodies to insulin without prior insulin administration. So far, in Western countries, <70 cases have been published. In addition, more than 380 cases of this syndrome have been reported.
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Abstracts from the 7th AACE Gulf Chapter Annual Meeting, Muscat, Oman 1-3 November, 2019 p. 15

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